All the great religions of the world preach that all people are equal. Only Islam differs according to the status of the humans.
Thus, the power of the Koran makes clear that Islam is not a universal brotherhood. It is merely a brotherhood of believers:
The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy. (49:10)
Not all people are equal in Islam. Slaves and disabled are not equal to healthy and free men (16:75-76). The Koran introduces the "Law of Equality", which sets different values of human life when looking at specific facts, such as the reimbursement of murder (2:178).
Muslim believers are never equal to non-Muslims:
Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing (in prayer) during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord (like one who disbelieves)?
Say: "Are those who know equal to those who know not?" It is only men of understanding who will remember (i.e. get a lesson from Allah's Signs and Verses). (39:9)
Say (O Muhammad): "Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "(It is) Allah."
Say: "Have you then taken (for worship) Auliya' (protectors, etc.) other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves?"
Say: "Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign to Allah partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them."
Say: "Allah is the Creator of all things, He is the One, the Irresistible." (13:16)
And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (idolatresses, etc.) till they believe (worship Allah Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress, etc.), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikun till they believe (in Allah Alone) and verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolater, etc.), even though he pleases you. Those (Al-Mushrikun) invite you to the Fire, but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and Forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember. (2:221)
The Koran clearly tells the Muslims that they are a preferred race, while those of other religions are "wicked"
You [true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allah. And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith, but most of them are Al-Fasiqun (disobedient to Allah - and rebellious against Allah's Command). (3:110)
As we shall see later, Allah condemns non-Muslims to hell, based only on their unbelief, while the faithful are rewarded with the best earthly comforts in the hereafter, including never-ending food, wine, and sex.
In the Gardens of delight (Paradise). (56:12)
A multitude of those (foremost) will be from the first generations (who embraced Islam). (56:13)
And a few of those (foremost) will be from the later time (generations). (56:14)
(They will be) on thrones woven with gold and precious stones, (56:15)
Reclining thereon, face to face. (56:16)
They will be served by immortal boys, (56:17)
With cups, and jugs, and a glass from the flowing wine, (56:18)
Wherefrom they will get neither any aching of the head, nor any intoxication. (56:19)
And fruit; that they may choose. (56:20)
And the flesh of fowls that they desire. (56:21)
And (there will be) Houris (fair females) with wide, lovely eyes (as wives for the pious), (56:22)
Like unto preserved pearls. (56:23)
A reward for what they used to do. (56:24)
No Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk) will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech (like backbiting, etc.) (56:25)
But only the saying of: Salam!, Salam! (greetings with peace) ! (56:26)
And those on the Right Hand, - Who will be those on the Right Hand? (56:27)
(They will be) among thornless lote-trees, (56:28)
Among Talh (banana-trees) with fruits piled one above another, (56:29)
In shade long-extended, (56:30)
By water flowing constantly, (56:31)
And fruit in plenty, (56:32)
Whose season is not limited, and their supply will not be cut off, (56:33)
And on couches or thrones, raised high. (56:34)
Verily, We have created them (maidens) of special creation. (56:35)
And made them virgins. (56:36)
Loving (their husbands only), equal in age. (56:37)
For those on the Right Hand. (56:38)
A multitude of those (on the Right Hand) will be from the first generation (who embraced Islam). (56:39)
And a multitude of those (on the Right Hand) will be from the later times (generations). (56:40)
A large part of the Koran is focused on distinguishing Muslims from non-Muslims and fighting non-Muslims. Among other things, non-Muslims are described as ill (2:10), liars (2:99), stupid (2:171) and deceptive (3:73).
The first Sura of the Koran is a short prayer, repeated by devout Muslims every day, ending with these words:
Guide us to the Straight Way (1:6)
The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians). (1:7)
Muhammad was once asked whether these were Jews and Christians. His answer was, "Who else?" (Bukhari 56:662).
Since Allah makes such a strong distinction between Muslims and those outside of faith, it is only natural that Muslims should incorporate unequal treatment standards into their everyday lives. The Koran tells Muslims to be compassionate, but reckless for the unbelievers:
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).
The Arabic word used to describe the ideal treatment of non-Muslims (shin-dal-dal) is the same word used in over 25 passages in the Koran to describe how painfully Allah made the hell.
Islamic law forbids formal Muslim charity (in the form of Zakat payment) to meet the needs of non-believers.
Allah intends that Muslims triumph over the unbelievers:
Those (hyprocrites) who wait and watch about you; if you gain a victory from Allah, they say: "Were we not with you," but if the disbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): "Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers?" Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection. And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers. (4:141)
The only acceptable position of non-Muslims against Muslims is submission to Islamic rule:
Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (9:29)
A common critique of many Muslims is that they often behave arrogantly towards others. Now you know why.