Bible and evolution theory: these are two spheres which seem like opposites. But as the history of mankind in the "book of books" leads to different opinions.
Is the story of Adam and Eve to be understood as a metaphor for the existence of early human hunter-gatherers in paradise? Cain kills Abel - an image of conflicts between nomadic herders and sedentary farmers? At first glance, it seems unlikely that events so far in the "darkness of our primate past" were, should have found their way into one of the most important books of mankind. When the Bible was the big change in the lives of early humans was mixed farming finally been largely completed.
Ancient myths as a basis
However, evolutionary biologist and historian, argue the Bible was not over night or out of nothing. Rather, it is the result of many different stories, myths and oral traditions, which already had been ancient in part at times of the formation of the old testament.
May be a reflection of traditions from the early days of Homo sapiens ranged into at the time of the creation of the Bible, is her thesis. It is believed this condition as a likely you can discover actually much perplexing in the Bible. The expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden is a metaphor for "the strongest a event in the history of mankind: the transition from egalitarian of hunter and collector groups to the sedentary way of life with agriculture and animal breeding".
This change to living conditions, for which people have been biologically not prepared and actually were until today ill-suited is the basis for many of the most memorable stories of the Bible. "The Bible is probably the most ambitious attempt to get those human problems that plague the Homo sapiens since the settle down."
Change of circumstances
In anthropology, called an inadequate adaptation to the environment "Mismatch". By the radical change in the quality of life of Homo sapiens and to agriculture and animal breeding a number of problems was surfaced abruptly could not get explained by themselves in another way.
The hitherto nomadic groups were now far more dependent on the vagaries of weather than before, because they had an impact on the harvest. The Biblical Flood might well have had a real "model" in the form of flooding or a tsunami.
Epidemics as God's punishment
Also the early farmers had been afflicted much more frequent and more intense of infectious diseases and epidemics. Domestic animals living in close proximity to were carriers of pathogens, which eventually went over to the people. They had searched for explanations for the new, terrible plagues.
Even the "emergence" a powerful, single God from an animistic world view inhabited by ghosts, the early humans had probably explained as a necessary "adjustment performance". It had to be a more powerful, more irritable God in the game, and people had to have somehow attracted his anger. From this got born a "catalog of sins" in addition to a number of commandments which should govern the life pleasing to God. The observance of the commandments in biblical societies was flanked by draconian penalties.
One sins and all need to suffer
Behind it is the belief that the sin of an individual, can entail penalties for society as a whole. Viewed in this light cruel punishments for crimes considered today as a minor can understand: the sinner or the sinner endanger finally with their behavior the whole community.
The other reason for the strict laws in the area of marriage and sexuality is simply the rapid spread of sexually transmitted diseases through the close coexistence of many people: monogamy and the constraint of sexuality of particularly women should remedy. Also the cleanliness rules fall into the category of disease prevention.
Jesus softens again
The New Testament with its message of charity in the reasoning in a way to the beginnings of the people returns: the doctrine of Jesus does not take back the commandments of God, she mitigate them but with the recommendation to mercy.
Based on the story of the woman taken in adultery makes it clear: Jesus won't defend the sin, but with his testimony he claimed something "who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her", which was probably natural in "Old hunter and collector culture": solidarity in the Group and a certain sense of proportion in terms of punishment.
Back to the roots
With Jesus back in the prehistoric times? That would shorten the theory too much. But what the Bible, particularly the Jesus story, "demanded by the people in terms of charity, is so simple to behave like hunters and gatherers in the own community always so conciliatory".