While Muhammad and his followers still lived in Mecca, they did not retaliate and did not fight, because being small in number the followers of Muhammad would have been wiped out if they had tried to retaliate. Also they were being protected by Mohammad's uncle until his death.
This doctrine, formed at this time, is symbolized by the following verses:
And be patient (O Muhammad) with what they say, and keep away from them in a good way. (73:10)
And leave Me Alone to deal with the beliers (those who deny My Verses, etc.), and those who are in possession of good things of life. And give them respite for a little while. (73:11)
People who enjoy the beautiful things of life have a special reason for gratitude towards God. When they are in the ranks of the enemies of God, not one, but God can deal adequately with them.
So leave them alone till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting (with horror). (52:45)
The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all nor will they be helped (i.e. they will receive their torment in Hell). (52:46)
And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment (i.e. the torment in this world and in their graves) before this, but most of them know not. [Tafsir At-Tabari, Vol. 27, Page 36]. (52:47)
So wait patiently (O Muhammad) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes , and glorify the Praises of your Lord when you get up from sleep. (52:48)
A man who calls himself to be the messenger of God must preach peace and tolerance so that he can gain more followers and spread the message of God among the people.
Say (O Muhammad to these Mushrikun and Kafirun): "O Al-Kafirun (disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Resurrection, and in Al-Qadar, etc.)! (109:1)
"I worship not that which you worship, (109:2)
"Nor will you worship that which I worship. (109:3)
"And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. (109:4)
"Nor will you worship that which I worship. (109:5)
"To you be your religion, and to me my religion (Islamic Monotheism)." (109:6)
And they give food, inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive, (76:8)
(Saying): "We feed you seeking Allah's Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you. (76:9)
The above verses are referring to the time. Even prisoners of war had to earn their own food or their own ransom; Even ordinary prisoners or offenders often starved to death if they were not given food by friends or had not had enough of their own income.
(siehe auch 38:15-17)
And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined, (their punishment) must necessarily have come (in this world). (20:129)
So bear patiently (O Muhammad) what they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day (an indication for the five compulsory congregational prayers), that you may become pleased with the reward which Allah shall give you. (20:130)
All good people have to deal patiently with what appears to them evil.
And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this (i.e. Messenger Muhammad and the Qur'an), they would surely have said: "Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger, we should certainly have followed Your Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), before we were humiliated and disgraced." (20:134)
Say (O Muhammad): "Each one (believer and disbeliever, etc.) is waiting, so wait you too, and you shall know who are they that are on the Straight and Even Path (i.e. Allah's Religion of Islamic Monotheism), and who are they that have let themselves be guided (on the Right Path). (20:135)
A man of God can only say, "We waited. My faith tells me that the truth of God has to pass through."
And had Allah willed, He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do.
It seems to be part of God's will and plan to let people decide freely. He does not forces people to do something. He just tries to give them some guidance. It is incumbent upon man to let him get leaded himself or not. Sinners who have repent, have the chance of forgiveness. The day will come when everyone has to explain his actions ...
See you not that We have sent the Shayatin (devils) against the disbelievers to push them to do evil. (19:83)
So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number (of the days of the life of this world and delay their term so that they may increase in evil and sins). (19:84)
According to God's laws, when evil has reached a certain stage of rebellion and defiance, gain momentum and fury with anger at its own destruction. The pious should therefore not concern themselves with the apparent worldly success of evil, but should continue their own duties in the spirit of trust in God.
(Allah has knowledge) of (Prophet Muhammad's) saying: "O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!" (43:88)
So turn away from them (O Muhammad), and say: Salam (peace)! But they will come to know. (43:89)
Say (O Muhammad): "The knowledge (of its exact time) is with Allah only, and I am only a plain warner."
It is not the task of prophets to punish the wicked, or to get them punished quickly. Its task is merely to warn against the inevitable end.
Say (O Muhammad): "O mankind! I am (sent) to you only as a plain warner."
So leave them in their error for a time.
Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with the things they utter.
It is also not the task of the faithful to punish. The best reaction is even not doing evil, even not in revenge. Do only that which defends evil the best. One evils does not justify another one.
So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them (by preaching) with the utmost endeavour, with it (the Qur'an).
The man of God gives no attention to naggers and critics who reject faith. His most powerful weapon in jihad is the words and revelations of God.
Your Lord knows you best, if He will, He will have mercy on you, or if He will, He will punish you. And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) as a guardian over them.
Even men of God are not sent to arrange or dispel the affairs of men, but only to teach the message of God.
Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Inspiration and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided. (16:125)
And if you punish (your enemy, O you believers in the Oneness of Allah), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily, it is better for As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.) . (16:126)
This section refers to controversies and discussions. The statement is far enough to cover all behavioral problems, disputes and battles. Even in the worst case, one is not entitled to make a worse blow than the one he has received. But those who have reached a higher spiritual level do not make it. The Muslims are reserved and patient. One should not think that such a patience only benefits the opponent. The one who has the advantage, who is able to control himself, does not lose his temperament and does not forget one's own principles of behavior.
And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)."
In order to become the true standard bearer of God, we must find the common beliefs, as the last part of this verse says.
As for those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths (i.e. Allah's Religion - Islamic Monotheism). And verily, Allah is with the Muhsinun (good doers)."
All that mankind can do is to serve God as well as possible. As soon as he struggles with all his might, perseverance, and determination, he is given the grace of God. The way of God is a straight path. There are many ways to God, but some have gone off the right path. Even in this case, the ways to God are still open. He only need to hold your his against God and work with all his mind, soul, resources and work hard on his mistakes (jihad). Thus one escapes the spider-net of our frail world, and attains eternal happiness in the fulfillment of the true destiny.
Allah calls to the home of peace (i.e. Paradise, by accepting Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds and abstaining from polytheism and evil deeds) and guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. (10:25)
For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honour of glancing at the Countenance of Allah) Neither darkness nor dust nor any humiliating disgrace shall cover their faces. They are the dwellers of Paradise, they will abide therein forever. (10:26)
The Pakistani Brigadier S.K. Malik writes in his book "The Koranic Concept of War":
... the tiny Muslim community in Mecca was the object of the Koraish tyranny and oppression since the proclamation of Islam. They were continuously subjected to the most inhuman torture, repression and persecution. They were ridiculed, browbeaten and assaulted
...The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque (the Ka’aba) to fulfill their religious obligations. This sacrilegious act amounted to an open declaration of war upon Islam. It eventually compelled the Muslims to migrate to Medina twelve years later, in 622 AD...
S. Malik, himself a Muslim, ignores the fact that only Muhammad and some others were denied access to the Ka'aba, and that Muhammad was guilty of tyranny and oppression of the Muslims themselves. He himself had declared war against the Meccans and thus posed a threat to the people of Mecca.
Jihad in the Koran Phase 2: (Medina) - self-defense is allowed