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Jihad in the Koran

JihadWhen we look at the number of verses in the Qur'an dealing with the theme of jihad or the struggle in the cause of God, it becomes clear that jihad is one of the main themes of the Koran.

The Arabic word is "Jihad-e-Kabir" (greater jihad). Muslims therefore believe that the physical war is "Jihad-e-Saghir" (smaller jihad), although this term is not expressly mentioned in the Koran (see also 4:74-76).

The 114 Quran suras, chapters, or parts of the Koran are not listed in the chronological order in which Mohammad recited them, but in the order of length, from the longest to the shortest. Instead of listing the verses in the order in which they appear in the Quran, I listed them in the historical order in which they were "revealed" (according to the list of Noldeke). This will help to make the obvious development of Jihad thinking more comprehensible.

The Ka'aba, a rectangular building in the city of Mecca, contained many religious symbols and was the center of the worship of the pagan Arabs at the time of Muhammed. Arabs from all over the Arab world undertook an annual pilgrimage to Mecca to adore these idols.

When Mohammad lived in Mecca in 610, he began to preach the Islam he had invented. His Quraish tribesmen became increasingly angry because of their condemnation of their idolatry. Ninety-eight of the 114 Suren of the Koran came into existence during the 13 years that Muhammed lived in Mecca. These Suras did not contain any instructions to the struggle in spite of the heavy persecution, the striking, the expulsion from their houses, and the death threats to which his small bonds of followers were subject. (See Suras about Jihad in the Koran from phase 1: (in Mecca) - no retribution)

The last 24 Suras are from the time after 622, when Mohammad and his followers had to flee to Medina to escape their persecution in Mecca. There, Mohammad became the political leader of the city, and his followers increased significantly. The doctrine of jihad or the struggle for "Allah" began to develop in these medieval suras.

The number of successors to Muhammad would be small if he had attempted to retaliate immediately. Muhammed was also protected by his uncle until his death. When Muhammad received an invitation to come to Medina, he fled with his followers from Mecca. In Medina he soon received the position of the city's leader and many more Arabs accepted him as a prophet.

Several months after arriving in Medina, the Muslims began attacking the Meccan caravans. (It is very difficult to understand how someone who claimed to be a prophet could take carnal, pagan, Arab practice to deceive the caravans of other tribes, and under the cover of the mantle, to "strive on the way of God" And then say that one-fifth of the prey belongs to God !?). This practice eventually led to the owners of the goods, the tribe of Mecca's Quraish, and several battles against Muhammed. It began with the Battle of Badr in the year 624. At that time, the Muslims were granted permission to defend themselves by fighting and killing. While Muhammed and his followers were themselves the cause of the war, it called Muhammed self-defense. After all, the Quraish simply wanted to protect their own caravans, which were robbed by the Muslims. The only enemies of the Muslims at this time were the "disbelievers" of the tribe of the Quraish of Mecca, who, according to his opinion, had idols instead of Muhammed. (See Suras about Jihad in the Koran from phase 2: (Medina) - self-defense is allowed)

A few months later, a religious obligation was made out of the permission to fight in self-defense. At first, the only enemy images were the "unbelievers" of the tribe of Quraish of Mecca. According to Muhammed, they were in a certain way which had declared war on the Muslims. Starting from the battle of Uhud, they began to regard the hypocrites as enemies, and later also the Christians and Jews as enemies. In the beginning, the Jews were not regarded as enemies, as Muhammed hoped that the Jews would accept him as a prophet in the same way as Moses. (see suras about jihad in the Koran from phase 3: (Medina) - defensive battles are commanded)

Until Phase 4, after the conquest of Mecca, where Muhammed was convinced that assault is the best defense and the attack war is being ordered. Only heathen should get killed and Christians and Jews should get humiliated.

The Muslims have gained strength, they attacked Mecca and the Meccans emerged in the year 630. Most of the heathen of the city converted to the Islam and so Muhammed and his followers were able to take over the city completely. From the Ka'aba got removed around 360 symbols of other religions. At this time new commands were given to adapt to the current situation. It was also obvious that the Jews would not accept Muhammed's claim to be a prophet. Thus the list of enemies was extended to all unbelievers - Jews and Christians as well as the heathen. Now it is no longer just defensive fighting but aggressive jihad against all infidels. Since this is the last doctrine of the Quran on jihad, it is still in force. In other words, Islam and the Muslims have been in the "holy" war since the year 630 of the Christian era with the rest of the world.

On page 538 of Brill's Encyclopaedia of Islam, the author describes:

The djihad is a duty. This precept is laid down in all the sources. It is true that there are to be found in the Koran divergent, and even contradictory, texts. These are classified by the doctrine, apart from certain variations of detail, into four successive categories:

  1. those which enjoin pardon for offences and encourage the invitation to Islam by peaceful persuasion
  2. those which enjoin fighting to ward off aggression
  3. those which enjoin the initiative in attack provided it is not within the four sacred months
  4. and those which enjoin the initiative in attack absolutely, at all times and in all places

In sum, these differences correspond to the stages in the development of Muhammad's thought and to the modifications of policy resulting from particular circumstances

The Meccan period during which Muhammad, in general, confines himself to moral and religious teaching, and the Medina period when, having become the leader of a politico-religious community, he is able to undertake, spontaneously, the struggle against those who do not wish to join this community or submit to his authority.

The doctrine holds that the later texts abrogate the former contradictory texts ... to such effect that only those of the last category remain indubitably valid.

 

Even Brill's Encyclopaedia of Islam describes the Koran in this part as a diary of the warlord and mass murderer Muhammed. Muhammed invented Islam as an excuse and designed Allah according to his wishes.

Even Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the translator into the English of the Bukhari Hadith, writes in on page XXIV in his instructions for translation:

So at first ‘the fighting’ was forbidden, then it was permitted and after that it was made obligatory - (1) against those who start ‘the fighting’ against you (Muslims) ... (2) and against all those who worship others along with Allah ...

 

In summary, the question "Is the Koran merely hate propaganda?" can get answered clearly with a big YES. The status of a religion must urgently get withdrawn from the Islam.

 

Jihad in the Koran Phase 4: (after the conquest of Mecca) - attack war is commanded

MeccaUntil the conquest of Mecca, the motto of the Muslims was to kill the Gentiles and to humiliate the Christians and Jews.

The Muslims continue to gain strength and defeat the Meccans (630 AD). Most of the heathen of the city was then Muslims. Muhammad and his followers were able to take over the city and the Ka'aba. About 360 symbols of other faiths have been removed from the Ka'aba. A new order, adapted to the new situation, was created. At that time, it was obvious that the Jews would not accept Muhammad's claim to be a prophet. Thus the list of his enemies was expanded and contained all "unbelievers" - Jews and Christians as well as the Gentiles. From this point onwards there are not only more defensive battles. The aggressive jihad against all unbelievers is commanded. Since this is the last doctrine of the Qur'an that is about jihad, it is still in force.

Koran 9:1-6

Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger to those of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), with whom you made a treaty. (9:1)

So travel freely (O Mushrikun - see V.2:105) for four months (as you will) throughout the land, but know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah, and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers. (9:2)

And a declaration from Allah and His Messenger to mankind on the greatest day (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah - the 12th month of Islamic calendar) that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) and so is His Messenger. So if you (Mushrikun) repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah. And give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful torment to those who disbelieve. (9:3)

Except those of the Mushrikun with whom you have a treaty, and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to them to the end of their term. Surely Allah loves Al- Mattaqun (the pious - see V.2:2). (9:4)

Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (9:5)

And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not. (9:6)

The heathen and enemies of Islam often made contracts of mutual alliance with the Muslims. The Muslims watched their role closely, but whenever they did, the heathen injured the treaty. After several years of experience, it became necessary to condemn such contracts as a whole. This was done in a proper form, with a four-month notice period and an opportunity for those who carefully observed their pledges to continue their alliance.

When the war becomes inevitable, it must be persecuted with harshness ... The fighting can take the form of killing, capturing, siege or ambush, as well as other forms of war. But even then there is room for repentance and change on the part of the guilty party. When that happens, there is a duty to forgive and to establish peace.

Koran 9:11-12

But if they repent, perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail for a people who know. (9:11)

But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism then fight (you) the leaders of disbelief (chiefs of Quraish - pagans of Makkah) - for surely their oaths are nothing to them - so that they may stop (evil actions). (9:12)

 

Koran 9:14-15

Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people,´(9:14)

And remove the anger of their (believers') hearts. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (9:15)

 

Koran 9:16

Do you think that you shall be left alone while Allah has not yet tested those among you who have striven hard and fought and have not taken Walijah [(Batanah - helpers, advisors and consultants from disbelievers, pagans, etc.) giving openly to them their secrets] besides Allah and His Messenger, and the believers. Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

It is important to note now that the Muslims are now commanded to forgo friendships with non-Muslims. The reason for this is that they are in a state of war with them. For this reason, the Muslim world is sometimes referred to as "the house of Islam", while the rest of the world is called "the house of war".

Koran 9:19-22

Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah? They are not equal before Allah. And Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers). (9:19)

Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah's Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful. (9:20)

Their Lord gives them glad tidings of a Mercy from Him, and that He is pleased (with them), and of Gardens (Paradise) for them wherein are everlasting delights. (9:21)

They will dwell therein forever. Verily, with Allah is a great reward. (9:22)

Here is a good description of jihad. It may require fighting in God's cause as a form of self-sacrifice. But his essence consists in a true and sincere faith that fixes his gaze on God in such a way that all selfish or secular motives appear miserable and faded. A serious and incessant activity which, if necessary, involves one's own life or property as a sacrifice in the service of God. Only brutal battles are against the spirit of jihad. A sincere scholar, a preacher's voice, or the contributions of a wealthy man can be the most valuable forms of jihad.

Koran 9:25-26

Truly Allah has given you victory on many battle fields, and on the Day of Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight. (9:25)

Then Allah did send down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquillity and reassurance, etc.) on the Messenger (Muhammad), and on the believers, and sent down forces (angels) which you saw not, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the recompense of disbelievers. (9:26)

Hunain was on his way to Taif, about 22km east of Mecca ... Immediately after the conquest of Mecca, the pagan idolaters who were surprised and angry at the reception of Muhammad in Mecca, near Taif, for making with plans for the recapture of Mecca with force.

There was a wave of self-confident enthusiasm among Muslims in Mecca, to which new Muslims joined. The forces of the heathen counted only about 4,000 men, but the Muslim reached a total of ten or twelve thousands. The local forces had the advantage of knowing the surroundings and the terrain well. They set a backdrop in which the vanguard of the Muslims was captured. The country is hilly and you could hide well. As soon as the Moslem vanguard entered the Hunain Valley, the anti-Muslim alliance fell upon them with anger. In such an environment, the number of Muslims themselves was a disadvantage. Many of them were killed, and many returned to confusion.

But Muhammad, as always, was quiet in his wisdom and faith. He again gathered his strength and prepared a crushing defeat for his enemies.

Koran 9:28

O you who believe (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger (Muhammad)! Verily, the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and in the Message of Muhammad) are Najasun (impure) . So let them not come near Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year, and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you if He will, out of His Bounty. Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

Unclean: literally and metaphorically. Because Muslims are obliged to be as strict in ablutions and physical cleanliness as in the purity of mind and heart so that their word is reliable.

Now they have complete control over Mecca and feel entrusted to watch over the "purity of worship". In their own opinion they exclude all impurities.

When the heathen had been in control, a small group of Muslims were not allowed to enter the Ka'aba. Brigadier S. K. Malik wrote:

The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque to fulfill their religious obligations." Now that the tables are reversed, the denial of the pagans' right to fulfill their religious obligations is not called "repression" but is excused on the grounds that they must "shut out all impurity" because the pagans "are unclean."

 

Koran 9:29-31

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (9:29)

And the Jews say: 'Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah's Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth! (9:30)

They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to worship none but One Ilah (God - Allah) La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) . Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)." (9:31)

The tribute was a tax that was accepted by those who did not accept Islam but who wanted to live under the protection of Islam, and were therefore tacitly prepared to carry out their ideals in the Muslim state. They could claim their personal conscience for themselves. It was a recognition that those whose religion was tolerated would not be associated with the preaching and progress of Islam. There were exceptions for the poor, for women and children, for slaves and for monks and hermits. Since it was a tax on able men of the military age, it was in a way a commutation for the military service.

Koran 9:38-39

O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter. (9:38)

If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things. (9:39)

 

Koran 9:41

March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah. This is better for you, if you but knew.

All were invited and they had to bring their own weapons and means. Easily or heavily armed and experienced rough men, foot or mounted, were needed for dangers and duties. All would and should help. Even those who were too old or too weak could bring as much money or resources as they had.

Koran 9:52

Say: "Do you wait for us (anything) except one of the two best things (martyrdom or victory); while we await for you either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands. So wait, we too are waiting with you."

 

Koran 9:73

O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them, their abode is Hell, - and worst indeed is that destination.

 

Koran 9:81-96

Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their properties and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said: "March not forth in the heat." Say: "The Fire of Hell is more intense in heat", if only they could understand! (9:81)

So let them laugh a little and (they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). (9:82)

If Allah brings you back to a party of them (the hypocrites), and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: "Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me; you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion, then you sit (now) with those who lag behind." (9:83)

And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and died while they were Fasiqun (rebellious, - disobedient to Allah and His Messenger). (9:84)

And let not their wealth or their children amaze you. Allah's Plan is to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers. (9:85)

And when a Surah (chapter from the Qur'an) is revealed, enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive hard and fight along with His Messenger, the wealthy among them ask your leave to exempt them (from Jihad) and say, "Leave us (behind), we would be with those who sit (at home)." (9:86)

They are content to be with those (the women) who sit behind (at home). Their hearts are sealed up (from all kinds of goodness and right guidance), so they understand not. (9:87)

But the Messenger (Muhammad) and those who believed with him (in Islamic Monotheism) strove hard and fought with their wealth and their lives (in Allah's Cause). Such are they for whom are the good things, and it is they who will be successful. (9:88)

For them Allah has got ready Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success. (9:89)

And those who made excuses from the bedouins came (to you, O Prophet) asking your permission to exempt them (from the battle), and those who had lied to Allah and His Messenger sat at home (without asking the permission for it); a painful torment will seize those of them who disbelieve. (9:90)

There is no blame on those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to spend [in holy fighting (Jihad)], if they are sincere and true (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger. No ground (of complaint) can there be against the Muhsinun (good-doers - see the footnote of V.9:120). And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (9:91)

Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said: "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihad). (9:92)

The ground (of complaint) is only against those who are rich, and yet ask exemption . They are content to be with (the women) who sit behind (at home) and Allah has sealed up their hearts (from all kinds of goodness and right guidance) so that they know not (what they are losing). (9:93)

They (the hypocrites) will present their excuses to you (Muslims), when you return to them. Say (O Muhammad) "Present no excuses, we shall not believe you. Allah has already informed us of the news concerning you. Allah and His Messenger will observe your deeds. In the end you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, then He (Allah) will inform you of what you used to do." [Tafsir At-Tabari] (9:94)

They will swear by Allah to you (Muslims) when you return to them, that you may turn away from them. So turn away from them. Surely, they are Rijsun [i.e. Najasun (impure) because of their evil deeds], and Hell is their dwelling place, - a recompense for that which they used to earn. (9:95)

They (the hypocrites) swear to you (Muslims) that you may be pleased with them, but if you are pleased with them, certainly Allah is not pleased with the people who are Al-Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). (9:96)

The tabuk expedition had to be undertaken in the heat of the summer, because of a threat or fear of a Byzantine invasion. This war took place late in the year 630 A.D. and is the first war against Christians.

In verse 9:86-87 one finds the stinging mockery in the suggestion "Let us be with those who sit (at home)!" The fact that such men were cowards.

Koran 9:111

Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success .

The Muslims are to offer their whole selves and their possessions to God, and God gives them the salvation, that is, the eternal freedom from the slavery of this world. This is the true doctrine of salvation of the Muslims, which is merely to fill the pockets of their leaders. Every other view of salvation is rejected by Islam, especially the one of corrupted Christianity, who believes the sworn-ness that another man suffered for the sins of the world and was saved by his blood. It is the self-abandonment of the Muslims and not the merits of others. The complete self-surrender of Muslims can be expressed through spiritual and physical struggle.

Koran 9:122

And it is not (proper) for the believers to go out to fight (Jihad) all together. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islamic) religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil).

Even among those who are able to go further, a party should remain behind for the purpose of studying in every community or circle, so that homecoming fighters can reconcile their thoughts to the more normal interests of the religious life of duly instructed teachers. The disciples and teachers are soldiers of jihad in obedience and discipline.

Koran 9:123

O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allah is with those who are the Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2).

When conflicts become unavoidable, the first thing is to free the environment from all evil, because it is only the evil that the Muslims can rightly fight.

Koran 5:36-38

Verily, those who disbelieve, if they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves thereby from the torment on the Day of Resurrection, it would never be accepted of them, and theirs would be a painful torment. (5:36)

They will long to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom, and theirs will be a lasting torment. (5:37)

Cut off (from the wrist joint) the (right) hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allah. And Allah is All-Powerful, All-Wise. (5:38)

For the double crime of treason against the state in connection with the betrayal of God, as shown by manifest crimes, four alternative punishments are mentioned, one of which is to be used according to the circumstances of execution, crucifixion, rape, or exile Is. These were the characteristics of the criminal code and centuries after, except that torture such as "slopes, stretches and quarters" in English law also involves pushing the eyeballs and leaving the unfortunate victim exposed to the tropical sun as practiced in Arabia Was abolished. In any case, sincere repentance, before it was too late, was acknowledged as a cause of mercy.

Koran 5:54

O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.

In the first days in Mecca, the enemies were the pagan Quraish, while Jews and Christians were tolerated. In Medina, after the Jews rejected Mohammad's claim of prophets, the list of the enemies of Islam was extended to the Jews and Christians.

 

Jihad in the Koran Phase 3: (Medina) - Defensive combat is commanded

MedinaA few months after giving permission to fight in self-defense, war (in self-defense) was made a religious obligation. At first, the only enemy images were the "unbelievers" of the tribe of Quraish of Mecca, who worshiped several gods. In the opinion of Muhammad they were the ones who had declared war on the Muslims. Muhammad has only forgotten that he himself is the cause of the war. Starting from the battle of Uhud, the hypocrites (Arabs who claimed they were Muslims, but did not really believe in Allah) began to reveal themselves as enemies. Later the Jews were also regarded as enemies. At the beginning of this stage, however, the Jews were not regarded as enemies because Muhammad had expected the Jews to be recognized as a prophet in the same way as Moses.

Koran 2:109

Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His Command. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.

At this time Muhammad overlooked the Jews and their unbelief. Later, when they clearly rejected their claim to the prophets' hood, they were no longer "overlooked"!

Koran 2:190-194

And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihad, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. (2:190)

And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. (2:191)

But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (2:192)

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.) (2:193)

The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2). (2:194)

The war is only permissible in self-defense and under defined limits. Strict limits must not be exceeded: women, children, old and frail men can not be combated.

This passage in verse 2:191 is illustrated by the events of Hudaibiya in the sixth year of the Hijra (escape from Mecca to Medina)
... Many of them (Muslims) were exiles from Mecca, where the heathen had founded an intolerant autocracy and had not pursued Muslims ungrounded. They were prevented from visiting their homes and some were even prevented from carrying out the pilgrimage ...

If a nation forcibly hinders another from exercising their holy rites, then they have declared war on their religion. According to Muhammad, it would be cowardice to ignore the challenge or ignore the "tyrants". If something is done, it must be done with force, but not relentlessly, in order to restore peace and freedom for the worship of God ...

For justice and faith is the Arabic word Din, which is very comprehensive. It includes the ideas of debt, duty, obedience, judgment, justice, faith, religion, customary rites, etc. The statement means "until there is Din for God."

When the other side ceases to pursue them, the hostility with her as a party ceases. It does not mean that you become friends of oppression. The fight is against the wrong. There should be no resentment against the men.

At the same time, the Muslims are ordered to practice self-control as far as possible. Force is a dangerous weapon. It must be used for self-defense or self-preservation. One must always remember that self-control is pleasing in the eyes of God. Even if you fight, it should be out of principle and not out of passion.

Koran 2:216-217

Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (2:216)

They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever." (2:217)

The struggle in the matter of truth is one of the highest forms of charity. What can be offered, which is more precious than one's own life? But here are limits. If it is a mere racket, a selfish aggressive person, or a boastful tyrant, then he deserves the most severe punishment. He who offers his life to the righteous Imam, who is guided only by God, is a selfless hero. God knows the value of these things better than anyone else.

The month of pilgrimage (Zil-Hajj)

The intolerance and persecution of the pagan clique in Mecca caused immense difficulties for the "holy messenger of Islam" and his early disciples. They bore everything with gentleness and long patience until the "holy one" allowed them to put themselves in self-defense. Then the break of the habit of "prohibited months" was decided. They were also allowed to fight in self-defense during this time. According to Muhammad, the enemies of Islam forced them into the real war. They disturbed their conscience, persecuted them and their families, insulted and denied God, kept the Muslim Arabs from the holy mosque, and banished them. In the ideology of Islam such violence and intolerance is much worse than assassinations.

Koran 2:256-257

There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (2:256)

Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Auliya (supporters and helpers) are Taghut [false deities and false leaders, etc.], they bring them out from light into darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever. (2:257)

Compulsion is incompatible with religion because religion depends on faith and will, and these would be meaningless if spread by force.

Koran Verse 8:1

They ask you (O Muhammad) about the spoils of war. Say: "The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger." So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), if you are believers.

The reason for this verse was the question of the division of the prey after the Battle of Badr.

Booty in a "legitimate and just war" does not belong to a person. If he fought for such an additional reward, he fought for false motifs. The prey belongs to the cause, in this case the cause of God, as it is administered by its representative, in this case Muhammad. This verse shows the true reasons for wars in the name of religion and, in this case, also the gloomy hints of Muhammad.

Koran 8:12-13

(Remember) when your Lord inspired the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes." (8:12)

This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is Severe in punishment. (8:13)

 

Koran 8:15-18

O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battle-field, never turn your backs to them. (8:15)

And whoever turns his back to them on such a day - unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), - he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allah. And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination! (8:16)

You killed them not, but Allah killed them. And you (Muhammad) threw not when you did throw but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (8:17)

This (is the fact) and surely, Allah weakens the deceitful plots of the disbelievers. (8:18)

The vulnerable parts of an armed man are above their necks. A blow on the neck, face or head kills him. If he has armor, it is hard to get to his heart. If, however, his hands are put out of action, he is not able to lead his sword, lance, or other weapon, and will easily become a prisoner.

Death or victory should be the motto of every soldier. It can be death alone, but if it is a believer, there is triumph in any case in the Hereafter.

When the battle of Badr began, Muhammad prayed and threw a handful of dust or sand toward the enemy to make them symbolically blind to their fate. This had a great psychological effect. Each action in the battle was attributed to God, since in his mission and mission he was also struggling.

Numerically, the chances against the Muslims were three to one. On the other hand, they were at a disadvantage: they had very little weapons and equipment while the enemy was very well equipped. The Muslims were also inexperienced, while the Quraish had brought their best warriors. In all this there was a test, but the test was accompanied by gracious pleasure of innumerable value ... So the test or test itself became a blessing.

Koran 8:38-42

Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief) their past will be forgiven. But if they return (thereto), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning). (8:38)

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world ]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do. (8:39)

And if they turn away, then know that Allah is your Maula (Patron, Lord, Protector and Supporter, etc.), (what) an Excellent Maula, and (what) an Excellent Helper! (8:40)

And know that whatever of war-booty that you may gain, verily one-fifth (1/5th) of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives [of the Messenger (Muhammad)], (and also) the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer, if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our slave (Muhammad) on the Day of criterion (between right and wrong), the Day when the two forces met (the battle of Badr) - And Allah is Able to do all things. (8:41)

(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on the ground lower than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment, but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge); so that those who were to be destroyed (for their rejecting the Faith) might be destroyed after a clear evidence, and those who were to live (i.e. believers) might live after a clear evidence. And surely, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (8:42)

When they stop fighting and turn away from the persecution of truth, God directs them through their actions and their motives. In this case, God does not want them to be bothered with further hostilities.

The rule is that one-fifth of the spoils are handed over to the Imam (the commander) and the rest is divided among the forces. The fifth portion, which is reserved, is used for God and His Messenger as well as for charitable purposes ...
The Imam has the determination on the type of division. In the lifetime of Muhammad, a certain portion of Muhammad and his close relatives were assigned.

The small Islamic warfare from Medina went to the great Meccan army, and they met on both sides of a valley in Badr, while the Quraian caravan was about 5 km from Badr.

The caravan was on its way to Mecca, but hardly anyone believed that they would arrive there. The Quraish army tried to save the caravan and then destroy the Muslims. The Muslims, however, had decided not to attack the caravan but directly attack the quraish army from Mecca. They assumed that this army would be small. But she was in the overpowering. In about more than the triple of their own. Nevertheless, the two forces met at the exact place and at the time when a decisive battle could take place. The Muslims claimed Mecca.

Koran 8:45-46

O you who believe! When you meet (an enemy) force, take a firm stand against them and remember the Name of Allah much (both with tongue and mind), so that you may be successful. (8:45)

And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with those who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). (8:46)

 

Koran 8:57-61

So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson. (8:57)

If you (O Muhammad) fear treachery from any people throw back (their covenant) to them (so as to be) on equal terms (that there will be no more covenant between you and them). Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous. (8:58)

And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves (from Allah's Punishment). (8:59)

And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly. (8:60)

But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (8:61)

The general meaning is that in each battle, physically, morally or spiritually, with the best weapons and the strongest army, they are armed against the enemy to impress the enemy and respect. It is thus the principle of psychological warfare.

Koran 8:65

O Prophet (Muhammad)! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast persons amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there be a hundred steadfast persons they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are people who do not understand.

 

Koran 8:67-69

It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (8:67)

Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took. (8:68)

So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and be afraid of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (8:69)

The reason for an ordinary war can be a territory, trade, revenge or military glory - in principle, all temporal goods of this world. Such a war is to be condemned. The jihad is fought under strict conditions and by a righteous imam only to defend the faith and the law of God. All base motifs, therefore, are strictly excluded. The greed of profit in the form of the ransom of captives has no place in such wars. At the same time, however, if the opponent has already suffered serious losses, they are allowed to take captives. It is at the discretion of the Imam to release these captives, to demand ransom for them or to kill them. The destruction of a soul, or the assassination of captives who were disgusting to gentle souls or Muhammad, is just as inevitable as the evil is trying to suppress the good. Seventy captives were taken in Badr and it was decided to demand ransom for them. While the general principle of fighting for the purpose of capturing is to receive ransom, this special action was approved in the battle of Badr.

Although every motive of the worldly gain, which may have been in the minds of some under the victorious Muslim army, is regarded as unworthy and severely punished, which indeed has been done, the permission for it is attributed to the plan of God which was predetermined. Among the prisoners, there were some who converted to Islam. In this case, it was also confirmed that the struggle against the Islamic opponents and their capture resulted in their being blessed by Islam. Muhammad's propaganda "This is how God's plan works in a miraculous way and evolves out of evil" was confirmed by this.

Koran 8:70-71

O Prophet! Say to the captives that are in your hands: "If Allah knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (8:70)

But if they intend to betray you (O Muhammad), they have already betrayed Allah before. So He gave (you) power over them. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise. (8:71)

In spite of their previous enmity, God will forgive them in their mercy if they have anything good in their hearts, and a far higher gift will be given to them than anything they have ever lost. This gift at this height is the blessing of Islam.

If the kindness shown to them is abused by prisoners of war, when they are released, it is not a matter of discouragement against those who showed goodness ... The faithful have done their duty to show such mildness, as it was possible under the circumstances of the war.

Koran 8:72

Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, - these are (all) allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate , but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.

It is about the people who had their home in Mecca and which they had to leave together with their good friends and their leader to live in exile in Medina. In Medina, asylum and any kind of moral and material assistance were given to them. Under the magnetic personality of Muhammad, these two groups became like blood brothers.

Koran 47:4-6

So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah's Cause), those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the Hell-fire) or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight), in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost, (47:4)

He will guide them and set right their state. (47:5)

And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them (i.e. they will know their places in Paradise more than they used to know their houses in the world). (47:6)

As soon as the battle (jihad) has been entered, it must be executed with the greatest force at the most decisive points. One can not wage with children's gloves.

In the first attempt, life must necessarily lead to great losses, but if the enemy is defeated, which means in jihad that he is not likely to seek the persecution of the truth again, firm measures should be taken to bring him under control and ... Others have interpreted these words differently: "After the lines of the enemy are thinly thinned, captives can be taken."

There are two alternative readings, (1) qatalu, "those who are struggling," and (2) qutilu, "those who are killed."

Koran 47:15

The description of Paradise which the Muttaqun (pious - see V.2:2) have been promised is that in it are rivers of water the taste and smell of which are not changed; rivers of milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine delicious to those who drink; and rivers of clarified honey (clear and pure) therein for them is every kind of fruit; and forgiveness from their Lord. (Are these) like those who shall dwell for ever in the Fire, and be given, to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels?

 

Koran 3:152

And Allah did indeed fulfil His Promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His Permission; until (the moment) you lost your courage and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you (of the booty) which you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them (your enemy), that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.

Uhud was initially a victory for the Muslims. Many enemies were killed, and they withdrew. A part of the Muslims, persecuted the fugitives against orders to make more prey. The disobedience seemed pleasant at first. They hunted the enemy and there was a good prospect of prey. But when the gap was noticed by the enemy, they turned the flank around the hill and overwhelmed almost all Muslims. If Muhammad had not been a good warlord they would have been defeated in this battle.

Koran 3:157

And if you are killed or die in the Way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass (of worldly wealths, etc.).

 

Koran 3:165-167

(What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: "From where does this come to us?" Say (to them), "It is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds)." And Allah has power over all things. (3:165)

And what you suffered (of the disaster) on the day (of the battle of Uhud when) the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers. (3:166)

And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: "Come, fight in the Way of Allah or (at least) defend yourselves." They said: "Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you." They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to Faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allah has full knowledge of what they conceal. (3:167)

When (the battle of) Uhud was a turn-around for the Muslims, the bend was twice as big in the battle against the Meccans at Badr. If they did not obey the commands and neglect the discipline, they had to attribute the catastrophe itself and not God.

Koran 3:169-171

Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision. (3:169)

They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve. (3:170)

They rejoice in a Grace and a Bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers. (3:171)

Through the gate of death, they enter the true real life. The carnal life is sustained with carnal food, and its pleasures are those projected onto the screen of this material world. Their real life is borne by the inexpressible presence and nearness of God.

The martyrs are not only happy about the bliss that they have achieved. The loves that are left behind are in their thoughts. It is part of their glory that they have saved their loved ones from fear, sorrow, humiliation and grief in this life, even before they come to partake in the glories of the hereafter.

Koran 3:195

So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), "Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are (members) one of another, so those who emigrated and were driven out from their homes, and suffered harm in My Cause, and who fought, and were killed (in My Cause), verily, I will remit from them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); a reward from Allah, and with Allah is the best of rewards."

 

Koran 61:4

Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure.

 

Koran 61:11-13

That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! (61:11)

(If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn - Eternity ['Adn (Edn) Paradise], that is indeed the great success. (61:12)

And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love, help from Allah (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) to the believers. (61:13)

The best reward has already been mentioned, namely, to walk in the gardens of eternity in the presence of God. However, this does not appear too distant or abstract for the understanding of the non-mentally advanced human being, a different type or symbol or metaphor is mentioned which could immediately understand and appreciate the people who first heard this message "which you love" and "All who strive for a righteous cause receive God's help, and so are the chances against us, we are sure of the victory with God's help."

It should be noted that a further description of the joys of paradise was given earlier. An example can be found in Sura 55:52-58: "There are two kinds of fruit in each fruit ... They will rest on resting beds of heavy brocade, and the harvest of the two gardens will depend. (Female beings) who hold back their gazes, which have neither touched man nor ginn before them ... as if they were rubies and corals." Of course, all description of the paradise is only symbolic to see and carnal sex naturally has no place in heaven. Nor has anyone come back to confirm Muhammad's words or the words of the Koran.

Koran 4:74-78

Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the Cause of Allah, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward. (4:74)

And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help." (4:75)

Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitan (Satan); Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitan (Satan). (4:76)

Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. They say: "Our Lord! Why have you ordained for us fighting? Would that you had granted us respite for a short period?" Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatila (a scalish thread in the long slit of a date-stone). (4:77)

"Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!" And if some good reaches them, they say, "This is from Allah," but if some evil befalls them, they say, "This is from you (O Muhammad)." Say: "All things are from Allah," so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word? (4:78)

Not everyone is ready to fight in the cause of God. Least of all, they are prepared to do the same with their mothers and demented persons. This is a privilege and those who understand the privilege are ready to sacrifice their entire interest in this life and this life itself.

One must note that the only alternatives here are death or victory! The true fighter knows no defeat.

What sufferings, threats, torments, and oppressions of those whose faith was not shaken in the great persecution before Mecca was conquered again? Muhammad's life and his followers were more or less threatened. They were mocked, attacked, insulted and beaten. Those who were in the power of the enemies of Muhammad were chained and thrown into prison. Others were boycotted and excluded from commerce, business and social traffic. They could not even buy the food they wanted or their religious duties. The persecution was doubled for the believing slaves, women and children after the Hijrat (flight to Medina). Their cry for a protector and helper of God was answered when Muhammad defeated the army of Mecca.

This passage clearly states what was first taught in Mecca, they should restrain themselves and not fight. Later they were ordered to fight.

Koran 4:84

Then fight (O Muhammad) in the Cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you), it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. And Allah is Stronger in Might and Stronger in punishing.

 

Koran 4:88-89

Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance). (4:88)

They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them. (4:89)

When the hypocrites caused almost a catastrophe for the Muslims because of their behavior in Uhud, there was great rejection among the Muslims of Medina. A party wanted to bring them to the sword of revenge. Another wanted to punish her with ignorance. Both extremes were avoided. They were given the chance to correct their mistake. If they made a sacrifice for the cause, their sincerity would allow them to be re-admitted to the community. If they left the Muslim community, they would be treated as enemies.

Koran 4:90-91

Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them. (4:90)

You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to temptation, they yield thereto. If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them. (4:91)

The exception relates to "seize and kill", the death penalty for repeated desertion. The exemption is also granted in two cases after this assignment. One where the deserter took asylum with a tribe with whom there was a peace and friendship treaty. The second case of liberation is where the man from his own heart never wants to take up arms against Islam to join the forces of Islam and fight against a hostile tribe (perhaps his own) who is fighting against Islam.

In contrast to the two classes of deserters, to whom mildness can be shown, there is a class that is treacherous and dangerous and can not be left alone. They try to gain confidence and are the whole time in the confidence of the enemy. Each time they get a chance, they succumb to the temptation of double trading.

Koran 4:95-96

Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame, etc.), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward; (4:95)

Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (4:96)

The special reward of this self-sacrifice is a high spiritual rank and special forgiveness and mercy, which can only proceed from the immediate recognition and love of God.

Koran 4:100

He who emigrates (from his home) in the Cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

 

Koran 33:25-27

And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty, etc.). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting (by sending against the disbelievers a severe wind and troops of angels). And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty. (33:25)

And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives. (33:26)

And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches, and a land which you had not trodden (before). And Allah is Able to do all things. (33:27)

Despite all the powerful preparations and the great forces that the Meccans, together with the Middle-Arab Bedouins, dissatisfied Jews, and the treacherous hypocrites brought to the siege of Medina, all their plans were frustrating. Their rage did not help them. That was her last and futile effort. The initiative thereafter succeeded the forces of Islam.

Koran 33:50

O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (captives or slaves) whom your right hand possesses - whom Allah has given to you, and the daughters of your 'Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your 'Ammah (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khal (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khalah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (captives or slaves) whom their right hands possess, - in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

 

Koran 22:58-59

Those who emigrated in the Cause of Allah and after that were killed or died, surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them. And verily, it is Allah Who indeed is the Best of those who make provision. (22:58)

Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased, and verily, Allah indeed is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing. (22:59)

In principle, everything that is necessary to equip the person for a full and happy future life, and also a destiny for his relatives, neighbors and loved ones in this life.

Koran 22:78

And strive hard in Allah's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islamic Monotheism). It is He (Allah) Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur'an), that the Messenger (Muhammad) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over mankind! So perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), give Zakat and hold fast to Allah [i.e. have confidence in Allah, and depend upon Him in all your affairs] He is your Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.), what an Excellent Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.) and what an Excellent Helper!

 

Koran 48:15-17

Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, "Allow us to follow you," They want to change Allah's Words. Say: "You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand." Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us." Nay, but they understand not except a little. (48:15)

Say (O Muhammad) to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward, but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment." (48:16)

No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment. (48:17)

Now comes another motive in the heads of the latecomers. The pilgrimage (to Mecca) had no promise for a war booty ... Jihad is not for personal gain or prey ... On the contrary, jihad is hard, in war and peace, in the cause of God.

The Arabs loved to fight and plunder. These were their motivations for the war. The higher motifs did not interest them at all. Like ignorant men, they attributed petty motifs or jealousy motifs when they were kept out of the vulgar circle of plunder.

As happened later in the Persian and Byzantine wars, there were also real battles with fearful and well-organized armies.

There can be neither fighting nor spoil. But all who obey the call of the righteous imam to jihad with perfect discipline will receive the spiritual rewards of the hereafter. How much more can you put into your own pockets if you promise the other a reward which you do not have to fulfill yourself in the hereafter?

Koran 48:22-24

And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs, then they would have found neither a Wali (protector) nor a helper. (48:22)

That has been the Way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the Way of Allah. (48:23)

And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah is Ever the All-Seer of what you do. (48:24)

Comparing this passage with verses 33:61-62, this may be the instructions given by Israel in Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 5:5) about the destruction or repression of the nations living in the promised land.

Koran 48:29

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).

The devotees carry the incessant war on evil for themselves and for others. But for their own brethren in faith - especially for the weaker - they are mild and compassionate.

Koran 66:9

O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe against them, their abode will be Hell, and worst indeed is that destination.

 

Koran 49:15

Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful.

 

Jihad in the Koran Phase 4: (after the conquest of Mecca) - attack war is commanded

 

Jihad in the Koran Phase 1: (in Mecca) - no retribution

MeccaWhile Muhammad and his followers still lived in Mecca, they did not retaliate and did not fight, because being small in number the followers of Muhammad would have been wiped out if they had tried to retaliate. Also they were being protected by Mohammad's uncle until his death.

This doctrine, formed at this time, is symbolized by the following verses:

Koran 73:10-11

And be patient (O Muhammad) with what they say, and keep away from them in a good way. (73:10)

And leave Me Alone to deal with the beliers (those who deny My Verses, etc.), and those who are in possession of good things of life. And give them respite for a little while. (73:11)

People who enjoy the beautiful things of life have a special reason for gratitude towards God. When they are in the ranks of the enemies of God, not one, but God can deal adequately with them.

Koran 52:45-48

So leave them alone till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting (with horror). (52:45)

The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all nor will they be helped (i.e. they will receive their torment in Hell). (52:46)

And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment (i.e. the torment in this world and in their graves) before this, but most of them know not. [Tafsir At-Tabari, Vol. 27, Page 36]. (52:47)

So wait patiently (O Muhammad) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes , and glorify the Praises of your Lord when you get up from sleep. (52:48)

A man who calls himself to be the messenger of God must preach peace and tolerance so that he can gain more followers and spread the message of God among the people.

Koran 109:1-6

Say (O Muhammad to these Mushrikun and Kafirun): "O Al-Kafirun (disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Resurrection, and in Al-Qadar, etc.)! (109:1)

"I worship not that which you worship, (109:2)

"Nor will you worship that which I worship. (109:3)

"And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. (109:4)

"Nor will you worship that which I worship. (109:5)

"To you be your religion, and to me my religion (Islamic Monotheism)." (109:6)

 

Koran 76:8-9

And they give food, inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive, (76:8)

(Saying): "We feed you seeking Allah's Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you. (76:9)

The above verses are referring to the time. Even prisoners of war had to earn their own food or their own ransom; Even ordinary prisoners or offenders often starved to death if they were not given food by friends or had not had enough of their own income.

Koran 20:129-130

(siehe auch 38:15-17)

And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined, (their punishment) must necessarily have come (in this world). (20:129)

So bear patiently (O Muhammad) what they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day (an indication for the five compulsory congregational prayers), that you may become pleased with the reward which Allah shall give you. (20:130)

All good people have to deal patiently with what appears to them evil.

Koran 20:134-135

And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this (i.e. Messenger Muhammad and the Qur'an), they would surely have said: "Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger, we should certainly have followed Your Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), before we were humiliated and disgraced." (20:134)

Say (O Muhammad): "Each one (believer and disbeliever, etc.) is waiting, so wait you too, and you shall know who are they that are on the Straight and Even Path (i.e. Allah's Religion of Islamic Monotheism), and who are they that have let themselves be guided (on the Right Path). (20:135)

A man of God can only say, "We waited. My faith tells me that the truth of God has to pass through."

Koran 16:93

And had Allah willed, He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do.

It seems to be part of God's will and plan to let people decide freely. He does not forces people to do something. He just tries to give them some guidance. It is incumbent upon man to let him get leaded himself or not. Sinners who have repent, have the chance of forgiveness. The day will come when everyone has to explain his actions ...

 

Koran 19:83-84

See you not that We have sent the Shayatin (devils) against the disbelievers to push them to do evil. (19:83)

So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number (of the days of the life of this world and delay their term so that they may increase in evil and sins). (19:84)

According to God's laws, when evil has reached a certain stage of rebellion and defiance, gain momentum and fury with anger at its own destruction. The pious should therefore not concern themselves with the apparent worldly success of evil, but should continue their own duties in the spirit of trust in God.

Koran 43:88-89

(Allah has knowledge) of (Prophet Muhammad's) saying: "O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!" (43:88)

So turn away from them (O Muhammad), and say: Salam (peace)! But they will come to know. (43:89)

 

Koran 67:26

Say (O Muhammad): "The knowledge (of its exact time) is with Allah only, and I am only a plain warner."

It is not the task of prophets to punish the wicked, or to get them punished quickly. Its task is merely to warn against the inevitable end.

Koran 22:49

Say (O Muhammad): "O mankind! I am (sent) to you only as a plain warner."

 

Koran 23:54

So leave them in their error for a time.

 

Koran 23:96

Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with the things they utter.

It is also not the task of the faithful to punish. The best reaction is even not doing evil, even not in revenge. Do only that which defends evil the best. One evils does not justify another one.

Koran 25:52

So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them (by preaching) with the utmost endeavour, with it (the Qur'an).

The man of God gives no attention to naggers and critics who reject faith. His most powerful weapon in jihad is the words and revelations of God.

Koran 17:54

Your Lord knows you best, if He will, He will have mercy on you, or if He will, He will punish you. And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) as a guardian over them.

Even men of God are not sent to arrange or dispel the affairs of men, but only to teach the message of God.

Koran 16:125-126

Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Inspiration and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided. (16:125)

And if you punish (your enemy, O you believers in the Oneness of Allah), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily, it is better for As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.) . (16:126)

This section refers to controversies and discussions. The statement is far enough to cover all behavioral problems, disputes and battles. Even in the worst case, one is not entitled to make a worse blow than the one he has received. But those who have reached a higher spiritual level do not make it. The Muslims are reserved and patient. One should not think that such a patience only benefits the opponent. The one who has the advantage, who is able to control himself, does not lose his temperament and does not forget one's own principles of behavior.

Koran 29:46

And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)."

In order to become the true standard bearer of God, we must find the common beliefs, as the last part of this verse says.

Koran 29:69

As for those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths (i.e. Allah's Religion - Islamic Monotheism). And verily, Allah is with the Muhsinun (good doers)."

All that mankind can do is to serve God as well as possible. As soon as he struggles with all his might, perseverance, and determination, he is given the grace of God. The way of God is a straight path. There are many ways to God, but some have gone off the right path. Even in this case, the ways to God are still open. He only need to hold your his against God and work with all his mind, soul, resources and work hard on his mistakes (jihad). Thus one escapes the spider-net of our frail world, and attains eternal happiness in the fulfillment of the true destiny.

Koran 10:25-26

Allah calls to the home of peace (i.e. Paradise, by accepting Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism and by doing righteous good deeds and abstaining from polytheism and evil deeds) and guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. (10:25)

For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and even more (i.e. having the honour of glancing at the Countenance of Allah) Neither darkness nor dust nor any humiliating disgrace shall cover their faces. They are the dwellers of Paradise, they will abide therein forever. (10:26)

The Pakistani Brigadier S.K. Malik writes in his book "The Koranic Concept of War":

... the tiny Muslim community in Mecca was the object of the Koraish tyranny and oppression since the proclamation of Islam. They were continuously subjected to the most inhuman torture, repression and persecution. They were ridiculed, browbeaten and assaulted

...The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque (the Ka’aba) to fulfill their religious obligations. This sacrilegious act amounted to an open declaration of war upon Islam. It eventually compelled the Muslims to migrate to Medina twelve years later, in 622 AD...

S. Malik, himself a Muslim, ignores the fact that only Muhammad and some others were denied access to the Ka'aba, and that Muhammad was guilty of tyranny and oppression of the Muslims themselves. He himself had declared war against the Meccans and thus posed a threat to the people of Mecca.

Jihad in the Koran Phase 2: (Medina) - self-defense is allowed

 

The Koran dehumanizes non-Muslims and describes them as animals

BeastAyatollah Khomeini, who studied Islam all his life, said that non-Muslims are somewhere between "faeces" and the "sweat of a camel that has consumed impure food". Little wonder: The Koran dehumanizes non-Muslims, describes them as "animals" and beasts:

Verily, those who disbelieve (in the religion of Islam, the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad) from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and Al-Mushrikun will abide in the Fire of Hell. They are the worst of creatures. (98:6)

Verily, The worst of moving (living) creatures before Allah are those who disbelieve , - so they shall not believe. (8:55)
 

Verse 7:176 compares unbelievers with "panting dogs" with regard to their idiocy and worthlessness.

Verse 7:179 says that they are much worse than "cattle".

Verse 9:28 says that the unbelievers are unclean.

Verse 6:111 says they are ignorant.

Verse 23:55 says they are helper of the devil.

Verse 5:60 even says that Allah has turned Jews into monkeys and pigs in the past. This gets repeated by verses 7:166 and 2:65.

A Hadith (Bukhari 54:524) says that Mohammed held rats for "mutated Jews" (also confirmed by Sahih Muslim 7135 and 7136).

Verses 46:29-35 even say that unbelieving humans are worse than the demons who believe in Mohammed.

According to Islamic law, non-Muslims may be owned by Muslims, but - in accordance with the Islamic message - a Muslim should never be the property of another Muslim (unless they convert to Islam under enslavement). Even Christians and Jews are not considered completely human because the punishment for the killing of one of them is limited to one-third of the compensation due for the unintentional killing of a Muslim.