Until the conquest of Mecca, the motto of the Muslims was to kill the Gentiles and to humiliate the Christians and Jews.
The Muslims continue to gain strength and defeat the Meccans (630 AD). Most of the heathen of the city was then Muslims. Muhammad and his followers were able to take over the city and the Ka'aba. About 360 symbols of other faiths have been removed from the Ka'aba. A new order, adapted to the new situation, was created. At that time, it was obvious that the Jews would not accept Muhammad's claim to be a prophet. Thus the list of his enemies was expanded and contained all "unbelievers" - Jews and Christians as well as the Gentiles. From this point onwards there are not only more defensive battles. The aggressive jihad against all unbelievers is commanded. Since this is the last doctrine of the Qur'an that is about jihad, it is still in force.
Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger to those of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), with whom you made a treaty. (9:1)
So travel freely (O Mushrikun - see V.2:105) for four months (as you will) throughout the land, but know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah, and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers. (9:2)
And a declaration from Allah and His Messenger to mankind on the greatest day (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah - the 12th month of Islamic calendar) that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) and so is His Messenger. So if you (Mushrikun) repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape (from the Punishment of) Allah. And give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful torment to those who disbelieve. (9:3)
Except those of the Mushrikun with whom you have a treaty, and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to them to the end of their term. Surely Allah loves Al- Mattaqun (the pious - see V.2:2). (9:4)
Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (9:5)
And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not. (9:6)
The heathen and enemies of Islam often made contracts of mutual alliance with the Muslims. The Muslims watched their role closely, but whenever they did, the heathen injured the treaty. After several years of experience, it became necessary to condemn such contracts as a whole. This was done in a proper form, with a four-month notice period and an opportunity for those who carefully observed their pledges to continue their alliance.
When the war becomes inevitable, it must be persecuted with harshness ... The fighting can take the form of killing, capturing, siege or ambush, as well as other forms of war. But even then there is room for repentance and change on the part of the guilty party. When that happens, there is a duty to forgive and to establish peace.
But if they repent, perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail for a people who know. (9:11)
But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism then fight (you) the leaders of disbelief (chiefs of Quraish - pagans of Makkah) - for surely their oaths are nothing to them - so that they may stop (evil actions). (9:12)
Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people,´(9:14)
And remove the anger of their (believers') hearts. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (9:15)
Do you think that you shall be left alone while Allah has not yet tested those among you who have striven hard and fought and have not taken Walijah [(Batanah - helpers, advisors and consultants from disbelievers, pagans, etc.) giving openly to them their secrets] besides Allah and His Messenger, and the believers. Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.
It is important to note now that the Muslims are now commanded to forgo friendships with non-Muslims. The reason for this is that they are in a state of war with them. For this reason, the Muslim world is sometimes referred to as "the house of Islam", while the rest of the world is called "the house of war".
Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah? They are not equal before Allah. And Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers). (9:19)
Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah's Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful. (9:20)
Their Lord gives them glad tidings of a Mercy from Him, and that He is pleased (with them), and of Gardens (Paradise) for them wherein are everlasting delights. (9:21)
They will dwell therein forever. Verily, with Allah is a great reward. (9:22)
Here is a good description of jihad. It may require fighting in God's cause as a form of self-sacrifice. But his essence consists in a true and sincere faith that fixes his gaze on God in such a way that all selfish or secular motives appear miserable and faded. A serious and incessant activity which, if necessary, involves one's own life or property as a sacrifice in the service of God. Only brutal battles are against the spirit of jihad. A sincere scholar, a preacher's voice, or the contributions of a wealthy man can be the most valuable forms of jihad.
Truly Allah has given you victory on many battle fields, and on the Day of Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight. (9:25)
Then Allah did send down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquillity and reassurance, etc.) on the Messenger (Muhammad), and on the believers, and sent down forces (angels) which you saw not, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the recompense of disbelievers. (9:26)
Hunain was on his way to Taif, about 22km east of Mecca ... Immediately after the conquest of Mecca, the pagan idolaters who were surprised and angry at the reception of Muhammad in Mecca, near Taif, for making with plans for the recapture of Mecca with force.
There was a wave of self-confident enthusiasm among Muslims in Mecca, to which new Muslims joined. The forces of the heathen counted only about 4,000 men, but the Muslim reached a total of ten or twelve thousands. The local forces had the advantage of knowing the surroundings and the terrain well. They set a backdrop in which the vanguard of the Muslims was captured. The country is hilly and you could hide well. As soon as the Moslem vanguard entered the Hunain Valley, the anti-Muslim alliance fell upon them with anger. In such an environment, the number of Muslims themselves was a disadvantage. Many of them were killed, and many returned to confusion.
But Muhammad, as always, was quiet in his wisdom and faith. He again gathered his strength and prepared a crushing defeat for his enemies.
O you who believe (in Allah's Oneness and in His Messenger (Muhammad)! Verily, the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and in the Message of Muhammad) are Najasun (impure) . So let them not come near Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year, and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you if He will, out of His Bounty. Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Unclean: literally and metaphorically. Because Muslims are obliged to be as strict in ablutions and physical cleanliness as in the purity of mind and heart so that their word is reliable.
Now they have complete control over Mecca and feel entrusted to watch over the "purity of worship". In their own opinion they exclude all impurities.
When the heathen had been in control, a small group of Muslims were not allowed to enter the Ka'aba. Brigadier S. K. Malik wrote:
The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque to fulfill their religious obligations." Now that the tables are reversed, the denial of the pagans' right to fulfill their religious obligations is not called "repression" but is excused on the grounds that they must "shut out all impurity" because the pagans "are unclean."
Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (9:29)
And the Jews say: 'Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah's Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth! (9:30)
They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to worship none but One Ilah (God - Allah) La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) . Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)." (9:31)
The tribute was a tax that was accepted by those who did not accept Islam but who wanted to live under the protection of Islam, and were therefore tacitly prepared to carry out their ideals in the Muslim state. They could claim their personal conscience for themselves. It was a recognition that those whose religion was tolerated would not be associated with the preaching and progress of Islam. There were exceptions for the poor, for women and children, for slaves and for monks and hermits. Since it was a tax on able men of the military age, it was in a way a commutation for the military service.
O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter. (9:38)
If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things. (9:39)
March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah. This is better for you, if you but knew.
All were invited and they had to bring their own weapons and means. Easily or heavily armed and experienced rough men, foot or mounted, were needed for dangers and duties. All would and should help. Even those who were too old or too weak could bring as much money or resources as they had.
Say: "Do you wait for us (anything) except one of the two best things (martyrdom or victory); while we await for you either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands. So wait, we too are waiting with you."
O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be harsh against them, their abode is Hell, - and worst indeed is that destination.
Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their properties and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said: "March not forth in the heat." Say: "The Fire of Hell is more intense in heat", if only they could understand! (9:81)
So let them laugh a little and (they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). (9:82)
If Allah brings you back to a party of them (the hypocrites), and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: "Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me; you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion, then you sit (now) with those who lag behind." (9:83)
And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and died while they were Fasiqun (rebellious, - disobedient to Allah and His Messenger). (9:84)
And let not their wealth or their children amaze you. Allah's Plan is to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers. (9:85)
And when a Surah (chapter from the Qur'an) is revealed, enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive hard and fight along with His Messenger, the wealthy among them ask your leave to exempt them (from Jihad) and say, "Leave us (behind), we would be with those who sit (at home)." (9:86)
They are content to be with those (the women) who sit behind (at home). Their hearts are sealed up (from all kinds of goodness and right guidance), so they understand not. (9:87)
But the Messenger (Muhammad) and those who believed with him (in Islamic Monotheism) strove hard and fought with their wealth and their lives (in Allah's Cause). Such are they for whom are the good things, and it is they who will be successful. (9:88)
For them Allah has got ready Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success. (9:89)
And those who made excuses from the bedouins came (to you, O Prophet) asking your permission to exempt them (from the battle), and those who had lied to Allah and His Messenger sat at home (without asking the permission for it); a painful torment will seize those of them who disbelieve. (9:90)
There is no blame on those who are weak or ill or who find no resources to spend [in holy fighting (Jihad)], if they are sincere and true (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger. No ground (of complaint) can there be against the Muhsinun (good-doers - see the footnote of V.9:120). And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (9:91)
Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said: "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihad). (9:92)
The ground (of complaint) is only against those who are rich, and yet ask exemption . They are content to be with (the women) who sit behind (at home) and Allah has sealed up their hearts (from all kinds of goodness and right guidance) so that they know not (what they are losing). (9:93)
They (the hypocrites) will present their excuses to you (Muslims), when you return to them. Say (O Muhammad) "Present no excuses, we shall not believe you. Allah has already informed us of the news concerning you. Allah and His Messenger will observe your deeds. In the end you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, then He (Allah) will inform you of what you used to do." [Tafsir At-Tabari] (9:94)
They will swear by Allah to you (Muslims) when you return to them, that you may turn away from them. So turn away from them. Surely, they are Rijsun [i.e. Najasun (impure) because of their evil deeds], and Hell is their dwelling place, - a recompense for that which they used to earn. (9:95)
They (the hypocrites) swear to you (Muslims) that you may be pleased with them, but if you are pleased with them, certainly Allah is not pleased with the people who are Al-Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). (9:96)
The tabuk expedition had to be undertaken in the heat of the summer, because of a threat or fear of a Byzantine invasion. This war took place late in the year 630 A.D. and is the first war against Christians.
In verse 9:86-87 one finds the stinging mockery in the suggestion "Let us be with those who sit (at home)!" The fact that such men were cowards.
Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success .
The Muslims are to offer their whole selves and their possessions to God, and God gives them the salvation, that is, the eternal freedom from the slavery of this world. This is the true doctrine of salvation of the Muslims, which is merely to fill the pockets of their leaders. Every other view of salvation is rejected by Islam, especially the one of corrupted Christianity, who believes the sworn-ness that another man suffered for the sins of the world and was saved by his blood. It is the self-abandonment of the Muslims and not the merits of others. The complete self-surrender of Muslims can be expressed through spiritual and physical struggle.
And it is not (proper) for the believers to go out to fight (Jihad) all together. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islamic) religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil).
Even among those who are able to go further, a party should remain behind for the purpose of studying in every community or circle, so that homecoming fighters can reconcile their thoughts to the more normal interests of the religious life of duly instructed teachers. The disciples and teachers are soldiers of jihad in obedience and discipline.
O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allah is with those who are the Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2).
When conflicts become unavoidable, the first thing is to free the environment from all evil, because it is only the evil that the Muslims can rightly fight.
Verily, those who disbelieve, if they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves thereby from the torment on the Day of Resurrection, it would never be accepted of them, and theirs would be a painful torment. (5:36)
They will long to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom, and theirs will be a lasting torment. (5:37)
Cut off (from the wrist joint) the (right) hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allah. And Allah is All-Powerful, All-Wise. (5:38)
For the double crime of treason against the state in connection with the betrayal of God, as shown by manifest crimes, four alternative punishments are mentioned, one of which is to be used according to the circumstances of execution, crucifixion, rape, or exile Is. These were the characteristics of the criminal code and centuries after, except that torture such as "slopes, stretches and quarters" in English law also involves pushing the eyeballs and leaving the unfortunate victim exposed to the tropical sun as practiced in Arabia Was abolished. In any case, sincere repentance, before it was too late, was acknowledged as a cause of mercy.
O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.
In the first days in Mecca, the enemies were the pagan Quraish, while Jews and Christians were tolerated. In Medina, after the Jews rejected Mohammad's claim of prophets, the list of the enemies of Islam was extended to the Jews and Christians.