A few months after giving permission to fight in self-defense, war (in self-defense) was made a religious obligation. At first, the only enemy images were the "unbelievers" of the tribe of Quraish of Mecca, who worshiped several gods. In the opinion of Muhammad they were the ones who had declared war on the Muslims. Muhammad has only forgotten that he himself is the cause of the war. Starting from the battle of Uhud, the hypocrites (Arabs who claimed they were Muslims, but did not really believe in Allah) began to reveal themselves as enemies. Later the Jews were also regarded as enemies. At the beginning of this stage, however, the Jews were not regarded as enemies because Muhammad had expected the Jews to be recognized as a prophet in the same way as Moses.
Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allah's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His Command. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.
At this time Muhammad overlooked the Jews and their unbelief. Later, when they clearly rejected their claim to the prophets' hood, they were no longer "overlooked"!
And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihad, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. (2:190)
And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. (2:191)
But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (2:192)
And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimun (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.) (2:193)
The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2). (2:194)
The war is only permissible in self-defense and under defined limits. Strict limits must not be exceeded: women, children, old and frail men can not be combated.
This passage in verse 2:191 is illustrated by the events of Hudaibiya in the sixth year of the Hijra (escape from Mecca to Medina)
... Many of them (Muslims) were exiles from Mecca, where the heathen had founded an intolerant autocracy and had not pursued Muslims ungrounded. They were prevented from visiting their homes and some were even prevented from carrying out the pilgrimage ...
If a nation forcibly hinders another from exercising their holy rites, then they have declared war on their religion. According to Muhammad, it would be cowardice to ignore the challenge or ignore the "tyrants". If something is done, it must be done with force, but not relentlessly, in order to restore peace and freedom for the worship of God ...
For justice and faith is the Arabic word Din, which is very comprehensive. It includes the ideas of debt, duty, obedience, judgment, justice, faith, religion, customary rites, etc. The statement means "until there is Din for God."
When the other side ceases to pursue them, the hostility with her as a party ceases. It does not mean that you become friends of oppression. The fight is against the wrong. There should be no resentment against the men.
At the same time, the Muslims are ordered to practice self-control as far as possible. Force is a dangerous weapon. It must be used for self-defense or self-preservation. One must always remember that self-control is pleasing in the eyes of God. Even if you fight, it should be out of principle and not out of passion.
Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (2:216)
They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever." (2:217)
The struggle in the matter of truth is one of the highest forms of charity. What can be offered, which is more precious than one's own life? But here are limits. If it is a mere racket, a selfish aggressive person, or a boastful tyrant, then he deserves the most severe punishment. He who offers his life to the righteous Imam, who is guided only by God, is a selfless hero. God knows the value of these things better than anyone else.
The month of pilgrimage (Zil-Hajj)
The intolerance and persecution of the pagan clique in Mecca caused immense difficulties for the "holy messenger of Islam" and his early disciples. They bore everything with gentleness and long patience until the "holy one" allowed them to put themselves in self-defense. Then the break of the habit of "prohibited months" was decided. They were also allowed to fight in self-defense during this time. According to Muhammad, the enemies of Islam forced them into the real war. They disturbed their conscience, persecuted them and their families, insulted and denied God, kept the Muslim Arabs from the holy mosque, and banished them. In the ideology of Islam such violence and intolerance is much worse than assassinations.
There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (2:256)
Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Auliya (supporters and helpers) are Taghut [false deities and false leaders, etc.], they bring them out from light into darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever. (2:257)
Compulsion is incompatible with religion because religion depends on faith and will, and these would be meaningless if spread by force.
Koran Verse 8:1
They ask you (O Muhammad) about the spoils of war. Say: "The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger." So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), if you are believers.
The reason for this verse was the question of the division of the prey after the Battle of Badr.
Booty in a "legitimate and just war" does not belong to a person. If he fought for such an additional reward, he fought for false motifs. The prey belongs to the cause, in this case the cause of God, as it is administered by its representative, in this case Muhammad. This verse shows the true reasons for wars in the name of religion and, in this case, also the gloomy hints of Muhammad.
(Remember) when your Lord inspired the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes." (8:12)
This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is Severe in punishment. (8:13)
O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battle-field, never turn your backs to them. (8:15)
And whoever turns his back to them on such a day - unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), - he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allah. And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination! (8:16)
You killed them not, but Allah killed them. And you (Muhammad) threw not when you did throw but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (8:17)
This (is the fact) and surely, Allah weakens the deceitful plots of the disbelievers. (8:18)
The vulnerable parts of an armed man are above their necks. A blow on the neck, face or head kills him. If he has armor, it is hard to get to his heart. If, however, his hands are put out of action, he is not able to lead his sword, lance, or other weapon, and will easily become a prisoner.
Death or victory should be the motto of every soldier. It can be death alone, but if it is a believer, there is triumph in any case in the Hereafter.
When the battle of Badr began, Muhammad prayed and threw a handful of dust or sand toward the enemy to make them symbolically blind to their fate. This had a great psychological effect. Each action in the battle was attributed to God, since in his mission and mission he was also struggling.
Numerically, the chances against the Muslims were three to one. On the other hand, they were at a disadvantage: they had very little weapons and equipment while the enemy was very well equipped. The Muslims were also inexperienced, while the Quraish had brought their best warriors. In all this there was a test, but the test was accompanied by gracious pleasure of innumerable value ... So the test or test itself became a blessing.
Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease (from disbelief) their past will be forgiven. But if they return (thereto), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning). (8:38)
And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world ]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do. (8:39)
And if they turn away, then know that Allah is your Maula (Patron, Lord, Protector and Supporter, etc.), (what) an Excellent Maula, and (what) an Excellent Helper! (8:40)
And know that whatever of war-booty that you may gain, verily one-fifth (1/5th) of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives [of the Messenger (Muhammad)], (and also) the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer, if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our slave (Muhammad) on the Day of criterion (between right and wrong), the Day when the two forces met (the battle of Badr) - And Allah is Able to do all things. (8:41)
(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on the ground lower than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment, but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge); so that those who were to be destroyed (for their rejecting the Faith) might be destroyed after a clear evidence, and those who were to live (i.e. believers) might live after a clear evidence. And surely, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (8:42)
When they stop fighting and turn away from the persecution of truth, God directs them through their actions and their motives. In this case, God does not want them to be bothered with further hostilities.
The rule is that one-fifth of the spoils are handed over to the Imam (the commander) and the rest is divided among the forces. The fifth portion, which is reserved, is used for God and His Messenger as well as for charitable purposes ...
The Imam has the determination on the type of division. In the lifetime of Muhammad, a certain portion of Muhammad and his close relatives were assigned.
The small Islamic warfare from Medina went to the great Meccan army, and they met on both sides of a valley in Badr, while the Quraian caravan was about 5 km from Badr.
The caravan was on its way to Mecca, but hardly anyone believed that they would arrive there. The Quraish army tried to save the caravan and then destroy the Muslims. The Muslims, however, had decided not to attack the caravan but directly attack the quraish army from Mecca. They assumed that this army would be small. But she was in the overpowering. In about more than the triple of their own. Nevertheless, the two forces met at the exact place and at the time when a decisive battle could take place. The Muslims claimed Mecca.
O you who believe! When you meet (an enemy) force, take a firm stand against them and remember the Name of Allah much (both with tongue and mind), so that you may be successful. (8:45)
And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with those who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). (8:46)
So if you gain the mastery over them in war, punish them severely in order to disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson. (8:57)
If you (O Muhammad) fear treachery from any people throw back (their covenant) to them (so as to be) on equal terms (that there will be no more covenant between you and them). Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous. (8:58)
And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves (from Allah's Punishment). (8:59)
And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly. (8:60)
But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (8:61)
The general meaning is that in each battle, physically, morally or spiritually, with the best weapons and the strongest army, they are armed against the enemy to impress the enemy and respect. It is thus the principle of psychological warfare.
O Prophet (Muhammad)! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast persons amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there be a hundred steadfast persons they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are people who do not understand.
It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (8:67)
Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took. (8:68)
So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and be afraid of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (8:69)
The reason for an ordinary war can be a territory, trade, revenge or military glory - in principle, all temporal goods of this world. Such a war is to be condemned. The jihad is fought under strict conditions and by a righteous imam only to defend the faith and the law of God. All base motifs, therefore, are strictly excluded. The greed of profit in the form of the ransom of captives has no place in such wars. At the same time, however, if the opponent has already suffered serious losses, they are allowed to take captives. It is at the discretion of the Imam to release these captives, to demand ransom for them or to kill them. The destruction of a soul, or the assassination of captives who were disgusting to gentle souls or Muhammad, is just as inevitable as the evil is trying to suppress the good. Seventy captives were taken in Badr and it was decided to demand ransom for them. While the general principle of fighting for the purpose of capturing is to receive ransom, this special action was approved in the battle of Badr.
Although every motive of the worldly gain, which may have been in the minds of some under the victorious Muslim army, is regarded as unworthy and severely punished, which indeed has been done, the permission for it is attributed to the plan of God which was predetermined. Among the prisoners, there were some who converted to Islam. In this case, it was also confirmed that the struggle against the Islamic opponents and their capture resulted in their being blessed by Islam. Muhammad's propaganda "This is how God's plan works in a miraculous way and evolves out of evil" was confirmed by this.
O Prophet! Say to the captives that are in your hands: "If Allah knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (8:70)
But if they intend to betray you (O Muhammad), they have already betrayed Allah before. So He gave (you) power over them. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise. (8:71)
In spite of their previous enmity, God will forgive them in their mercy if they have anything good in their hearts, and a far higher gift will be given to them than anything they have ever lost. This gift at this height is the blessing of Islam.
If the kindness shown to them is abused by prisoners of war, when they are released, it is not a matter of discouragement against those who showed goodness ... The faithful have done their duty to show such mildness, as it was possible under the circumstances of the war.
Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, - these are (all) allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate , but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.
It is about the people who had their home in Mecca and which they had to leave together with their good friends and their leader to live in exile in Medina. In Medina, asylum and any kind of moral and material assistance were given to them. Under the magnetic personality of Muhammad, these two groups became like blood brothers.
So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah's Cause), those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the Hell-fire) or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight), in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost, (47:4)
He will guide them and set right their state. (47:5)
And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them (i.e. they will know their places in Paradise more than they used to know their houses in the world). (47:6)
As soon as the battle (jihad) has been entered, it must be executed with the greatest force at the most decisive points. One can not wage with children's gloves.
In the first attempt, life must necessarily lead to great losses, but if the enemy is defeated, which means in jihad that he is not likely to seek the persecution of the truth again, firm measures should be taken to bring him under control and ... Others have interpreted these words differently: "After the lines of the enemy are thinly thinned, captives can be taken."
There are two alternative readings, (1) qatalu, "those who are struggling," and (2) qutilu, "those who are killed."
The description of Paradise which the Muttaqun (pious - see V.2:2) have been promised is that in it are rivers of water the taste and smell of which are not changed; rivers of milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine delicious to those who drink; and rivers of clarified honey (clear and pure) therein for them is every kind of fruit; and forgiveness from their Lord. (Are these) like those who shall dwell for ever in the Fire, and be given, to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels?
And Allah did indeed fulfil His Promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His Permission; until (the moment) you lost your courage and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you (of the booty) which you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them (your enemy), that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.
Uhud was initially a victory for the Muslims. Many enemies were killed, and they withdrew. A part of the Muslims, persecuted the fugitives against orders to make more prey. The disobedience seemed pleasant at first. They hunted the enemy and there was a good prospect of prey. But when the gap was noticed by the enemy, they turned the flank around the hill and overwhelmed almost all Muslims. If Muhammad had not been a good warlord they would have been defeated in this battle.
And if you are killed or die in the Way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass (of worldly wealths, etc.).
(What is the matter with you?) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: "From where does this come to us?" Say (to them), "It is from yourselves (because of your evil deeds)." And Allah has power over all things. (3:165)
And what you suffered (of the disaster) on the day (of the battle of Uhud when) the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers. (3:166)
And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: "Come, fight in the Way of Allah or (at least) defend yourselves." They said: "Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you." They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to Faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allah has full knowledge of what they conceal. (3:167)
When (the battle of) Uhud was a turn-around for the Muslims, the bend was twice as big in the battle against the Meccans at Badr. If they did not obey the commands and neglect the discipline, they had to attribute the catastrophe itself and not God.
Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision. (3:169)
They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve. (3:170)
They rejoice in a Grace and a Bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers. (3:171)
Through the gate of death, they enter the true real life. The carnal life is sustained with carnal food, and its pleasures are those projected onto the screen of this material world. Their real life is borne by the inexpressible presence and nearness of God.
The martyrs are not only happy about the bliss that they have achieved. The loves that are left behind are in their thoughts. It is part of their glory that they have saved their loved ones from fear, sorrow, humiliation and grief in this life, even before they come to partake in the glories of the hereafter.
So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), "Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are (members) one of another, so those who emigrated and were driven out from their homes, and suffered harm in My Cause, and who fought, and were killed (in My Cause), verily, I will remit from them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); a reward from Allah, and with Allah is the best of rewards."
Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure.
That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! (61:11)
(If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn - Eternity ['Adn (Edn) Paradise], that is indeed the great success. (61:12)
And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love, help from Allah (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) to the believers. (61:13)
The best reward has already been mentioned, namely, to walk in the gardens of eternity in the presence of God. However, this does not appear too distant or abstract for the understanding of the non-mentally advanced human being, a different type or symbol or metaphor is mentioned which could immediately understand and appreciate the people who first heard this message "which you love" and "All who strive for a righteous cause receive God's help, and so are the chances against us, we are sure of the victory with God's help."
It should be noted that a further description of the joys of paradise was given earlier. An example can be found in Sura 55:52-58: "There are two kinds of fruit in each fruit ... They will rest on resting beds of heavy brocade, and the harvest of the two gardens will depend. (Female beings) who hold back their gazes, which have neither touched man nor ginn before them ... as if they were rubies and corals." Of course, all description of the paradise is only symbolic to see and carnal sex naturally has no place in heaven. Nor has anyone come back to confirm Muhammad's words or the words of the Koran.
Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the Cause of Allah, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward. (4:74)
And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help." (4:75)
Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan, etc.). So fight you against the friends of Shaitan (Satan); Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaitan (Satan). (4:76)
Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. They say: "Our Lord! Why have you ordained for us fighting? Would that you had granted us respite for a short period?" Say: "Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatila (a scalish thread in the long slit of a date-stone). (4:77)
"Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!" And if some good reaches them, they say, "This is from Allah," but if some evil befalls them, they say, "This is from you (O Muhammad)." Say: "All things are from Allah," so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word? (4:78)
Not everyone is ready to fight in the cause of God. Least of all, they are prepared to do the same with their mothers and demented persons. This is a privilege and those who understand the privilege are ready to sacrifice their entire interest in this life and this life itself.
One must note that the only alternatives here are death or victory! The true fighter knows no defeat.
What sufferings, threats, torments, and oppressions of those whose faith was not shaken in the great persecution before Mecca was conquered again? Muhammad's life and his followers were more or less threatened. They were mocked, attacked, insulted and beaten. Those who were in the power of the enemies of Muhammad were chained and thrown into prison. Others were boycotted and excluded from commerce, business and social traffic. They could not even buy the food they wanted or their religious duties. The persecution was doubled for the believing slaves, women and children after the Hijrat (flight to Medina). Their cry for a protector and helper of God was answered when Muhammad defeated the army of Mecca.
This passage clearly states what was first taught in Mecca, they should restrain themselves and not fight. Later they were ordered to fight.
Then fight (O Muhammad) in the Cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you), it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. And Allah is Stronger in Might and Stronger in punishing.
Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance). (4:88)
They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them. (4:89)
When the hypocrites caused almost a catastrophe for the Muslims because of their behavior in Uhud, there was great rejection among the Muslims of Medina. A party wanted to bring them to the sword of revenge. Another wanted to punish her with ignorance. Both extremes were avoided. They were given the chance to correct their mistake. If they made a sacrifice for the cause, their sincerity would allow them to be re-admitted to the community. If they left the Muslim community, they would be treated as enemies.
Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them. (4:90)
You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to temptation, they yield thereto. If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them. (4:91)
The exception relates to "seize and kill", the death penalty for repeated desertion. The exemption is also granted in two cases after this assignment. One where the deserter took asylum with a tribe with whom there was a peace and friendship treaty. The second case of liberation is where the man from his own heart never wants to take up arms against Islam to join the forces of Islam and fight against a hostile tribe (perhaps his own) who is fighting against Islam.
In contrast to the two classes of deserters, to whom mildness can be shown, there is a class that is treacherous and dangerous and can not be left alone. They try to gain confidence and are the whole time in the confidence of the enemy. Each time they get a chance, they succumb to the temptation of double trading.
Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame, etc.), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward; (4:95)
Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (4:96)
The special reward of this self-sacrifice is a high spiritual rank and special forgiveness and mercy, which can only proceed from the immediate recognition and love of God.
He who emigrates (from his home) in the Cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty, etc.). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting (by sending against the disbelievers a severe wind and troops of angels). And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty. (33:25)
And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives. (33:26)
And He caused you to inherit their lands, and their houses, and their riches, and a land which you had not trodden (before). And Allah is Able to do all things. (33:27)
Despite all the powerful preparations and the great forces that the Meccans, together with the Middle-Arab Bedouins, dissatisfied Jews, and the treacherous hypocrites brought to the siege of Medina, all their plans were frustrating. Their rage did not help them. That was her last and futile effort. The initiative thereafter succeeded the forces of Islam.
O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (captives or slaves) whom your right hand possesses - whom Allah has given to you, and the daughters of your 'Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your 'Ammah (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khal (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khalah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (captives or slaves) whom their right hands possess, - in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Those who emigrated in the Cause of Allah and after that were killed or died, surely, Allah will provide a good provision for them. And verily, it is Allah Who indeed is the Best of those who make provision. (22:58)
Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall be well-pleased, and verily, Allah indeed is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing. (22:59)
In principle, everything that is necessary to equip the person for a full and happy future life, and also a destiny for his relatives, neighbors and loved ones in this life.
And strive hard in Allah's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion, Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islamic Monotheism). It is He (Allah) Who has named you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur'an), that the Messenger (Muhammad) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over mankind! So perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), give Zakat and hold fast to Allah [i.e. have confidence in Allah, and depend upon Him in all your affairs] He is your Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.), what an Excellent Maula (Patron, Lord, etc.) and what an Excellent Helper!
Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, "Allow us to follow you," They want to change Allah's Words. Say: "You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand." Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us." Nay, but they understand not except a little. (48:15)
Say (O Muhammad) to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward, but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment." (48:16)
No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment. (48:17)
Now comes another motive in the heads of the latecomers. The pilgrimage (to Mecca) had no promise for a war booty ... Jihad is not for personal gain or prey ... On the contrary, jihad is hard, in war and peace, in the cause of God.
The Arabs loved to fight and plunder. These were their motivations for the war. The higher motifs did not interest them at all. Like ignorant men, they attributed petty motifs or jealousy motifs when they were kept out of the vulgar circle of plunder.
As happened later in the Persian and Byzantine wars, there were also real battles with fearful and well-organized armies.
There can be neither fighting nor spoil. But all who obey the call of the righteous imam to jihad with perfect discipline will receive the spiritual rewards of the hereafter. How much more can you put into your own pockets if you promise the other a reward which you do not have to fulfill yourself in the hereafter?
And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs, then they would have found neither a Wali (protector) nor a helper. (48:22)
That has been the Way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the Way of Allah. (48:23)
And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah is Ever the All-Seer of what you do. (48:24)
Comparing this passage with verses 33:61-62, this may be the instructions given by Israel in Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 5:5) about the destruction or repression of the nations living in the promised land.
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).
The devotees carry the incessant war on evil for themselves and for others. But for their own brethren in faith - especially for the weaker - they are mild and compassionate.
O Prophet (Muhammad)! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be severe against them, their abode will be Hell, and worst indeed is that destination.
Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful.
Jihad in the Koran Phase 4: (after the conquest of Mecca) - attack war is commanded